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Glutamine is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Its side chain is similar to that of glutamic acid, except the carboxylic acid group is replaced by an amide. It is classified as a charge-neutral, polar amino acid. It is non-essential and conditionally essential in humans, meaning the body can usually synthesize sufficient amounts of it, but in some instances of stress, the body's demand for glutamine increases and glutamine must be obtained from the diet. It is encoded by the codons CAA and CAG.

Certain others names for Glutamine are: - L-Glutamine


2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid

2-Amino-4-carbamoyl butanoic acid


In human blood, glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid.

The dietary sources of glutamine includes especially the protein-rich foods like beef, chicken, fish, dairy products, eggs and vegetables like beans, beets, cabbage, spinach, carrots, parsley, vegetable juices and also in wheat, papaya, brussels sprouts, celery, kale and fermented foods like miso.


•Glutamine plays a role in a variety of biochemical function

•Protein synthesis, as any other of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids – sentence is incomplete

•Lipid synthesis, especially by cancer cells

•Regulates the acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium

•Cellular energy, as a source, next to glucose

•Nitrogen donation for many anabolic processes, including the synthesis of purines

•Carbon donation, as a source, refilling the citric acid cycle

•Nontoxic transporter of ammonia in blood circulation


Glutamine is produced industrially using mutants of Brevibacterium flavum, which gives ca. 40 g/L in 2 days using glucose as a carbon source. Glutamine is synthesized by the enzyme glutamine synthetase from glutamate and ammonia. The most relevant glutamine-producing tissue is the muscle mass, accounting for about 90% of all glutamine synthesized. Glutamine is also released, in small amounts, by the lungs and brain. Although the liver is capable of relevant glutamine synthesis, its role in glutamine metabolism is more regulatory than producing, since the liver takes up large amounts of glutamine derived from the gut.


The most eager consumers of glutamine are the cells of intestines, the kidney cells for the acid-base balance, activated immune cells and many cancer cells.



Glutamine is the most abundant naturally occurring, nonessential amino acid in the human body, and one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood–brain barrier. Humans obtain glutamine through catabolism of proteins in foods they eat. In states where tissue is being built or repaired, like growth of babies, or healing from wounds or severe illness, glutamine becomes conditionally essential.

Sickle cell disease

In 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved L-glutamine oral powder, marketed as Endari, to reduce severe complications of sickle cell disease in people aged 5 years and older with the disorder.

Medical food

Glutamine is marketed as medical food and is prescribed when a medical professional believes a person in their care needs supplementary glutamine due to metabolic demands beyond what can be met by endogenous synthesis or diets.


Whey Protein Contract Manufacturing & Private Labeling Market in India and Across the Globe

Whey protein powder is a common supplement that is used by many athletes to help improve their muscle protein synthesis. It is useful in promoting the growth of muscle mass as well. There are several benefits of using whey protein, which is produced by either separating it from casein in milk or extracting it as a by-product while making cheese. The fact that it contains all the 9 essential amino acids makes it the complete protein.

There are several options when it comes to manufacturing Whey Protein:

•Whey protein contract manufacturing: There is the option of selecting a protein contract manufacturer instead of doing business with an existing brand to manufacture it themselves. A contract manufacturer will create the whey powder as per the instructions provided to them. In fact, the contract manufacturer will handle all the tasks from creating the protein powder to designing the correct label and packing it. Thus, this is beneficial to the contract manufacturer as they are producing their product. However, the protein powder is being sold under a different brand name.

•Private label protein powder manufacturing: Private labelling is also very popular since this way the wholesaler or retailer is able to sell a product on their brand name in spite of not having manufactured it. An outsourced firm manufactures a private label product as per the instructions and specifications provided to them. This type of business arrangement is also highly beneficial due to the high demand for whey protein powders like whey protein isolate & blend in the global market.


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